In Brazil, researchers interviewed six mothers and concluded that uneducated mothers find it difficult “to transcend their everyday experiences”. Educated mothers, on the other hand, were able to consider complex aspects of their interactions with their babies and thereby “transcend” primary care considerations.
They reached this conclusion with the help of a French software analysis package called Alceste, which can eat up any kind of text and spit back out blocks of words categorized by their proximity. The current researchers plugged in their six interviews and the computer spat back two categories. The first included words like PUT, SLEEP, TIME, WALK and CRYING; the second category included words like ISSUE, MOTHER, THINK, EXPERIENCE, and BOND. Without any further analysis, the researchers concluded that the first category was the everyday of the uneducated, whereas the second category was the transcendence of the educated. It seems as if this was a conclusion that the researchers had in mind before they started the study.
One of the mothers in the study, the least educated, was 32 years old, with 5 children and an income two thirds of the minimum wage. She is likely to be under immediate day-to-day pressures, and more so than the post-graduate mother of two with an income almost ten times greater. She’s going to have less time to sit about ruminating about the quality of her bonding experience with her baby. If there’s a difference in the way the two mothers talking about their relationships with their children, there’s no reason to suppose that it’s formal education that makes the difference.
The researchers seemed to be frustrated at the way some mothers (especially the uneducated ones) answered their questions:
It was noticed, when interviewing mothers, that some of them had difficulty in answering the questions formulated from reflections, getting quite restricted to the facts and personal experiences of the “here and now”. So they spoke from their practices and held in the minutiae of routine care for their babies, often at the expense of what was required of them.
This is perhaps the most interesting part of the study. Mothers were asked about bonding with their babies, the parent-child relationship, what’s important for development. In response, they spoke about the here and now. They did not speak in the abstract. They did not talk about theories or beliefs, even though that’s what the researchers seemed to want from them.
Maybe that’s because, after all, there is only the here and now when it comes to mothers and children. When people talk about motherhood in abstract terms, it seems so bland and irrelevant compared to the immediacy of a child demanding something. Maybe bonding is like culture – it only exists to the observer. To the mother in the middle of it, there’s no bonding, there’s only getting up at night in response to a crying baby – there’s only constant vigilance to know where the baby is – there’s only patience as a rough toddler tries to climb on you while you’re picking up the laundry.
The researchers wanted their mothers to transcend the everyday, and those with an education were able to oblige to some extent. But what does that tell us about motherhood?
Oliveira, A. D., Chaves Maia, E. M., & Alchieri, J. C. (2016). What do mothers say about the mother and baby relation?. Journal of Nursing UFPE on line, 10(9), 3212-3222